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Aree sosta e ristoranti chiusi dopo le 18, che vuol dire camionisti costretti a veri e propri orinatoi a cielo aperto, a non avere un luogo dove ristorarsi o lavarsi le mani. Circostanza che riguarda anche le diecimila donne che in Italia fanno questo mestiere. Ho ricevuto lamentele da tutta Italia per la mancanza di mascherine omologate: non credo sia da paese civile sapere che chi gui da per. Questo vuol dire che bloccare il trasporto due giorni equivale a un Paese finito.
Quella dei camionisti neppure, aggiungiamo noi. E devo dire che tutto ha funzionato bene. Il tutto. Sono le parole di Andrea Gentile, Presidente di Assologistica. Oltre ad aderire ai contributi delle Confederazioni Confetra e Confindustria , Assologistica ha dato. Una squadra, quella degli autisti di Rea Trasporti, che conta oggi 72 persone. Tra le prime aziende a ot-. I mezzi operano in questi casi per la Rivoira, azienda leader nella produzione e distribuzione di gas allo stato liquido e gassoso e nella costruzione di impianti, sempre per il gas.
Passano pochi mesi e Lo ner aspira a un ruolo di maggiore vicinanza al veicolo industriale. In quegli anni. Siamo ambiziosi nel voler creare una filiera sostenibile completa, dal committente al destinatario. Carichiamo materie prime, semilavorati, lavorati, alluminio, prodotti agricoli, merce refrigerata. In flotta disponiamo di 25 semirimorchi frigoriferi a cui vanno aggiunti centinati, vasche e ribaltabili.
Per quanto riguarda i semirimorchi frigoriferi ci affidiamo a veicoli Schmitz Cargobull abbinati a gruppi. Nel non abbiamo comunque rinunciato a pianificare importanti investimenti. In particolare, ci siamo con centrati sul biometano liquido, che per noi rappresenta lo step successi-. Diverso il caso del biometano ricavato da fonti rinnovabili. Si tratta ovviamente di distributori aperti al pubblico.
Se il buon giorno si vede dal mattino, il Gruppo Maganetti ha tutte le carte in regola per replicare i successi fin qui conseguiti. Il distri-. Maganetti affonda le sue radici negli anni Sessanta del secolo scorso. Mia madre Maria Patrizia Romeri Maganetti e mio padre non avevano un ruolo operativo in azienda, quindi il passaggio ge-. Inoltre, Maganetti sup-. In sostanza, le B Corp aderiscono a un nuovo paradigma di business adeguato ai nostri tempi, concreto e replicabile. Maganetti, che diventa anche la quinta B Corp della provincia di Sondrio, ha iniziato il lungo iter per la certificazione nel gennaio A oggi nel mondo vi sono circa 2.
Il Renault Trucks T 01 Racing, intera-. La verniciatura esterna. Sul veicolo sono presenti adesivi retroriflettenti esclusivi che richiamano il mondo delle corse. Le finiture sono completate dalla verniciatura della visiera, dei cerchi, della calandra del radiatore e della scocca dei retrovisori.
Ha un basso chilometraggio e una garanzia del costruttore di 12 mesi o mila km. Il costruttore francese ha stipulato un contratto con il Gruppo Carlsberg per la fornitura di 20 autocarri D Wide Z. I 20 autocarri D Wide Z. Con una gamma completa di autocarri elettrici da 3,1 a 26 tonnellate, Renault Trucks risponde alle esigenze immediate e future delle imprese che lavorano nelle aree urbane.
Il D Wide Z. Due motori elettrici erogano una potenza totale di kW potenza continua kW e una coppia massima di Nm. Il layout della cabina offre un ambiente spazioso per autisti e passeggeri, con scomparti portaoggetti capienti e organizzati e una comoda area notte. Il layout dei comandi fa in modo che tutte le funzioni siano a portata di mano, permettendo agli autisti di lavorare agevolmente. Il volante multifunzione dotato di 22 co mandi mette tutte le funzioni necessarie a portata di mano, compresi i sistemi di assistenza alla guida.
Il lettino inferiore in un unico pezzo presenta un materasso dello spessore di 14 cm, disponibile in due livelli di comfort. Nel abbiamo acqui-. Abbiamo tutte le tipologie di veicoli, trattori, motrici, semirimorchi, furgoni, tutti isotermici con gruppo frigo per un totale di 78 pezzi, in prevalenza di marca. Assumere e attrarre i conducenti migliori sta diventando imperativo categorico per le. Volvo Trucks risponde a questa esigenza con una nuova generazione di pesanti stradali, sviluppata per rivolgersi a conducenti qualificati con veicoli che si pro pongono come strumenti di lavoro sicuri, efficienti e interessanti.
Nella cantieristica i veicoli sono strumenti di lavoro robusti e pratici. Anche gli esterni sono stati aggiornati per riflettere le nuove caratteristiche con un design accattivante. In molti mercati FH e FM sono disponibili con motore LNG alimentato a gas conforme allo standard Euro VI, che offre efficienza e prestazioni nei consumi allo stesso livello dei veicoli Volvo con alimentazione diesel. Nel segmento dei veicoli commerciali, Lamberet conta di rivoluzionare il panorama dei frigoriferi, in senso proprio e figurato, con il lancio.
I primi prototipi sono in uso da 2 anni e danno pie na soddisfazione. Questo veicolo offre il miglior rendimento energetico sul mercato, con un COP EER di 1,55, per un consumo ridotto a soli 45 ampere. Berlingo e Peugeot Partner elettrici. Queste applicazioni innovative di Lamberet per il trasporto a temperatura controllata hanno suscitato fin da subito molto interesse da parte dei clienti, tanto che fin dai primi mesi del le soluzioni presentate si sono trasformate presto in conferme di importanti contratti di fornitura soprattutto nel settore della grande distribuzione alimentare e della logistica distributiva del farmaco.
La stretta collaborazione con le maggiori Case costruttrici fa parte del Dna di Lamberet. Nel suo percorso di crescita costante degli ultimi 10 anni, Lamberet ha assunto un ruolo di leader consolidato, in particolare nel mercato italiano. I Parts Specialists sono una vera e propria squadra di mec canici esperti di Diesel Technic, pronti a dare il miglior supporto non solo attraverso il sito dedicato ma anche tramite un apposito HelpDesk, strumento disponibile on line tramite il quale i Parts Specialists rispondono alle richieste individuali degli utenti.
Per soddisfare tutte le richieste, il duo originario dei Parts Specialists di Diesel Technic, composto da Lars e. Comitato di Redazione Fabio Basilico - f. Il telaio del pianale impedisce inoltre la penetrazione del-. Le pareti dello spessore di 60 mm, il tetto dello spessore di 85 mm e il fondo dello spessore di mm garantiscono un ridotto coefficiente di trasmissione del calore valore K. Questa elevata protezione contro gli effetti della temperatura riduce il consumo di energia consentendo al tempo stesso una riduzione dei costi.
Ad esempio, le dodici guide per carico multipiano, cadauna parete, e i loro portapallet consentono un carico fino a 33EP Europallet. Questa paratia, fatta di singoli profili a V in allu-. Oltre a una coppia di rulli in acciaio, sono montate due file di paracolpi in gomma sul pannello chiusura telaio e una protezione in gomma a sinistra e a destra del telaio portale.
Ha inoltre acquisito una posizione di leadership di mercato in. Belgio e Lussemburgo 19,4 per cento e in Bulgaria 23,6 per cento. Inoltre, Daf ha venduto 7. In Sud Africa le vendite sono. Daf ha inoltre venduto quasi 3mila motori Paccar ai principali produttori di autobus, pullman e veicoli speciali in tutto il mondo.
Sempre nel la rete Daf di oltre. Krone, produttore tedesco leader di. Investimento ragionato, quello del management Krone, il cui. Naturalmente ci siamo riorganizzati con lavoro a distanza e part time. Mercedes-Benz e Bosch cooperano in Brasile ercedes-Benz e Bosch hanno unito le loro forze in Brasile per dare vita a un modernissimo centro di test per veicoli. Oggetto di attenzione non saranno solo truck e bus dal momento che successivamente potranno essere testati anche autovetture, veicoli commerciali e motocicli.
Insieme, Mercedes-Benz e Bosch investiranno 70 milioni di di Real brasiliani circa 15 milioni di euro. Per questo motivo negli ultimi periodi Fassi Gru ha messo a disposizione il suo know-how e una gamma di prodotti dedicati a quelle aziende che operano nelle infrastrutture ferroviarie. SVI - che ha chiu-. Una commessa importante di.
Nella sua configurazione attuale il gruppo nasce negli Anni Duemila quando il Presidente Gerald Cavalier decide di esportare la competenza tecnica maturata. Propone come servizio di prova la verifica periodica degli strumenti del frigorista, la mappatura in temperatura di celle frigorifere e vetrine e la taratura dei registratori di temperatura presso il cliente con accreditamento EN Sulla base di questa competenza, oltre dieci anni fa.
Tutte normative riconosciute. La certificazione riguarda non solo il gruppo frigorifero,. Gran parte dei gruppi frigoriferi della gamma Carrier sono stati provati in condizioni estreme, sin dalle fasi di sviluppo, per superare i test Cemafroid. Una volta installati. Operativa da febbraio , la sede di Fontevivo occupa una superficie coperta di 1.
Oggi il core business di Coldpoint deriva dalla gestione dei contratti di manu-. Coldpoint commercializza gruppi frigo Carrier, sui quali gestisce la garanzia, ed effettua assistenza su gruppi frigo di ogni brand. Tra i player che hanno messo a disposizione la propria competenza. Nata come start-up da una squadra di giovani ingegneri di Alessandria, specializzati nel settore della connessione dati attraverso internet che, supportati da partner strategici, lungo la loro strada hanno incrociato il mondo del trasporto, Fiway nasce.
Quinto complesso portuale del Nord Europa, il nome che richiama quello del nostro continente denomina una joint-venture tra i porti francesi di Le Havre, Rouen e Parigi. E che nei dodici. Sono cresciuti inoltre i segmenti di biocarburanti e biomasse, che beneficiano di favorevoli prospettive di crescita, in linea con le sfide della transizione energetica.
Questa cifra mostra il dinamismo del nostro porto e conferma la sua continua crescita. Il roll-on, roll-off il traffico su navi-tra-. Per quanto riguarda la movimentazione dei passeggeri i risultati sono in linea con le aspettative Per il il mercato si sta aprendo e le navi in costruzione che stanno uscendo dai cantieri consentono di guardare al futuro in modo ragionevole.
E questo grazie soprattutto al settore delle costruzioni impegnato nei cantieri della Grande Parigi e alle esportazioni di grano. Palletway ys: trasportia amo i tuoi pallet anche in Eu Eur uropa. La trasmissione completamente elettrica eroga da a kW. Oltre al suo impiego come pullman turistico di lusso, Skyliner sta conquistando consensi tra le aziende di trasporto come veicolo per i viaggi interurbani.
La ricarica viene effettuata tramite wallbox a CA da 7,2 kW e richiede circa cinque ore e mezzo. I National Transport Awards decretano nel panorama del trasporto sul mercato spagnolo il miglior veicolo per ciascuna delle nove categorie previste. Mentre continueremo a commercializzare i nostri autobus e a espanderci a livello globale, riteniamo che questo ac-. Otokar offre soluzioni su misura per le esigenze dei clienti utilizzando tecnologie, design e applicazioni proprie.
Gli autobus con marchio Otokar trasportano attualmente milioni di passeggeri in oltre 50 paesi in tutto il mondo. In ambienti urbani, con kWh e in condizioni climatiche standard, garantisce autonomia approssimativa di km, ovvero circa 17 ore di funzionamento.
Nel nuovo Irizar ie bus troviamo fino a cinque posizioni di punti di ricarica lenta interoperabile. Elaborato anche il design interno che include in opzione alcune caratteristiche dei tram Irizar tra cui vetri bassi, illuminazione laterale o schermi. Inoltre, essendo modulare, facilita la configurazione interna per il cliente. Oltre a rispettare la normativa antiribaltamento.
Oggi con Toscandia portiamo su strada veicoli dal costo giusto, con ottime caratteristiche di comfort di bordo ma soprattutto che non temono confronti nei consumi: siamo tra i 4,5 e i 5 km al litro rispetto a una media che non va oltre i 3,5, che vuol dire per cento in meno. Per noi rappresenta un elemento fondamentale.
I sei Touring entreranno in servizio principalmente a Roma come mezzi sostituivi per Busitalia, incaricata dalle Ferrovie dello Stato di sostituire con trasporto su gomma le tratte su rotaia a. A questo scopo Continental porta sul mercato la famiglia Conti CoachRegio, una nuova gamma di pneumatici per autobus per applicazioni regionali.
La gamma Conti CoachRegio include, oltre a uno pneumatico per tutti gli assi, anche uno pneumatico per asse trattivo. Con Conti CoachRegio introduciamo sul. ContiSeal sigilla in modo affidabile le forature con un diametro fino a cinque millimetri, senza perdita di pressione degli pneumatici.
La tecnologia risolve i tipi. Continental sta studiando come utilizzare la tecnologia ContiSeal nei suoi pneumatici invernali anche per i furgoni. Primo pneumatico. Con una robusta fascia antiabrasione sul fianco, riduce gli effetti del contatto con i cordoli, mentre gli espulsori di pietre alla base del battistrada e un disegno partico-. Con mescola migliorata alla silice e superficie di contatto piatta, questo pneumatico offre elevato chilometraggio anche in condizioni operative difficili.
Massimiliano Campanella da pagina IV. Il van compatto di Volkswagen Veicoli Commerciali arriva alla quinta generazione completamente rinnovato fuori e dentro. Servizio da pagina XX. Il van compatto di Volkswagen Veicoli Commerciali arriva alla quinta generazione completamente rinnovato fuo ri e dentro. Un grande cambiamento per il mondo Caddy che grazie al pianale modulare trasversale introduce nuove tecnologie: innovativi sistemi di assistenza per sicurezza e comfort, sistemi di infotainment collegati in rete e comandi digitalizzati.
Gli altri mercati principali in-. Nessuna linea, nes sun componente sono rimasti uguali a prima. I designer hanno conferito al veicolo multiuso una. Con i suoi 1. Nella zona del tetto si distingue una doppia linea, grazie alla quale il baricentro del veicolo si abbassa. Nella vista da dietro appare chiaro quanto siano pronunciati i parafanghi posteriori.
A caratterizzare il nuovo design del posteriore sono i gruppi. Al centro del posteriore si pre senta con orgoglio il grande e nuovo logo Caddy. Negli interni la quinta generazione del veicolo multiuso con vince con nuove soluzioni high-tech e uno spazio notevolmente maggiore. Presenti a. Innovative al pari dei sistemi di assistenza sono le nuove motorizzazioni 4 cilindri del Caddy: si tratta di.
Ad eccezione dei fari - quadrati in Nord America, circolari in Europa le versioni dei due continenti non presentavano differenze. Poco prima, nel , la produzione del Caddy era iniziata anche a Uitenhage, in Sudafrica. Per poter utilizzare il Caddy per il trasporto di merci in tutta sicurezza era disponibile, a richiesta, anche un hardtop in vetroresina per la superficie di carico. In questo modo il pick-up si trasformava in un. In tutto il mondo sono stati costruiti mila e sem plari della prima generazione del Caddy.
Anche Skoda propose una sua versione. Il Volkswagen Caddy venne offerto in versione praticamente identica alla Seat Inca; i due modelli vennero costruiti lungo la stessa linea di produzione nello stabilimento spagnolo di Martorell. Diversamente dalla prima generazione, il Caddy di seconda generazione venne proposto inizialmente solo in ver-. Volkswagen propose il Caddy di seconda generazione esclusivamente con porte a battente. Nel fu la volta del Caddy Family, un precursore delle successive monovolume compatte.
Fino al termine della produzione del Caddy 2 , circa mila automobilisti avevano scelto un modello di questa generazione, oppure uno. La terza generazione del Cad dy venne lanciata sul mercato da Volkswagen Veicoli Commerciali nel una vera rivoluzione. Nella versione Kombi a tetto alto Caddy era un modello con un vano di carico che aveva raggiunto i 3,2 mc. Per la prima volta Caddy era disponibile, a scelta, con porte a battente oppure con portellone di grandi dimensioni. Il Caddy della terza generazione, in grado di ospitare fino a sette persone, divenne rapidamente nel le versioni Furgone e Kom bi - uno dei veicoli da trasporto compatti di maggior successo degli anni Nel fu la volta del primo camper compatto della gamma: il geniale Caddy Tramper.
Altrettanto efficienti ed ecocompatibili sono il motore turbo benzina 1. Tra il e il , con oltre mila esemplari venduti, il Caddy di terza generazione raggiunse volumi di vendita mai registrati prima. Nel il Caddy venne sottoposto a un consistente restyling. Le versioni Furgone, Kombi e monovolume compatta, ottimizzate sia esteticamente sia tecnologicamente, erano ora equipaggiate con controllo elettronico della stabilizzazione ESP di serie.
Il nuovo Caddy inoltre fu uno dei primi veicoli del suo segmento a essere disponibile non solo con trazione anteriore ma anche con trazione integrale 4Mo tion a richiesta. Nel marzo Volkswagen Veicoli Commerciali ha superato quota 2 milioni dei soli esemplari prodotti nello stabilimento polacco di Pozna? Di questi, fino a fine , circa mila erano costituiti dal Caddy 4, sul mercato dal Come nasce questa collaborazione e su quali valori comuni si fonda?
Quali sono i punti di forza della partnership? In alter-. La versione extra-long raggiunge, invece, una lunghezza complessiva di 5. Sono stati anche esaminati il comportamento di marcia e del carico alle basse temperature, oltre alla resistenza al freddo dei componenti del gruppo propulsore e del software. Mercedes-Benz eVito regge il confronto dei costi con i tradizionali modelli con motore a combustione.
La scelta tra il motore elettrico a batterie o il tradizionale motore a combustione interna dipende, quindi, esclusivamente dalla presenza di presupposti ottimali per una determinata applicazione. Dopo aver fatto il punto della situazione, si passa allo sviluppo condiviso delle soluzioni per risolvere il problema caso per caso, in stretta collaborazione con il rispettivo.
I progetti pilota, realizzati in collaborazione con le due aziende di soluzioni logistiche Hermes e Amazon Logistics, rappresentano due esempi di come il punto di vi sta del cliente incida profondamente sullo sviluppo di soluzioni di sistema globali. Inoltre, Mercedes-Benz Vans propone, per la prima volta, un nuovo servizio per la gestione intelligente dello stato di carica, che consente anche di tenere sotto controllo il livello di carica di ciascun veicolo.
Prossimamente, Mercedes-. Anche se, in questo caso, lo si riuscirebbe ad apprezzare anche senza sapere nulla di numeri e strategie di mercato. Spazioso, confortevole,. Per la nostra prova dal mazzo abbiamo pescato una carta molto interessante, la versione doppia cabina spinta dal 2.
Oltre alla nostra variante, adatta al trasporto di un numero massimo di sei passeggeri e di tanti oggetti ingombranti nel cassone, esiste la versione furgone, quella con pianale cabinato e la combi. Insomma la gamma Vivaro offre. Davvero impagabile. Tutti accorgimenti che costituiscono fattori importantissimi anche nel mercato delle flotte, quando evitare gli incidenti significa ridurre i costi operativi. Stesso discorso per i lunghi intervalli di servizio assicurati dal veicolo, fino a Motore: 2.
Carburante: gasolio. Cilindrata: 1. Livello ecologico: Euro 6. Cambio: automatico a 8 marce. Dimensioni mm : lunghezza 5. Massa a vuoto: 1. Sito produttivo: stabilimento di Luton, Regno Unito. OM Ebbene, la Casa tedesca inserisce nel programma di sviluppo del Vito un interessante upgrade che apre un nuovo capitolo nella storia del van della Stella.
Con eVito nel ed eSprinter nel , Mercedes-Benz Vans ha precorso i tempi nel segmento premium per un trasporto merci commerciale a zero emissioni locali in aree urbane. La catena cinematica elettrica eATS aziona le ruote anteriori con una potenza di picco massima di kW cv. La presa di carica CCS, situata sul lato sinistro del paraurti anteriore, permette anche la ricarica in corrente continua CC. La batteria, con. Grazie alla strategia di funzionamento intelligente, la batteria di eVito Tourer si ricarica anche durante la marcia.
In fase di rilascio o di frenata, il movimento rotatorio meccanico viene trasformato in energia elettrica utilizzata per ricaricare la batteria ad alto voltaggio recupero di energia. Finora la nuova generazione di motori era disponibile solo per Vito Tourer.
I clienti possono scegliere tra svariati pacchetti di equipaggiamento. Brake Assist attivo, Distronic sistema di assistenza attivo alla regolazione della distanza e specchietto retrovisore interno digitale portano da 10 a 13 i sistemi di assistenza e di sicurezza disponibili per il nuovo Vito. I designer hanno modificato il caratteristico look dinamico di Vito. Ora il van si riconosce dalla griglia del radiatore riconfigurata.
Il motore diesel quattro cilindri OM risulta particolarmente efficiente nei consumi e con emissioni bassissime. Con la nuova generazione di Marco Polo Activity, il numero dei sistemi di sicurezza e assistenza a bordo aumenta, passando dagli attuali 10 a Se il conducente reagisce, il sistema di assistenza genera una pressione frenante adeguata alla specifica situazione; se, al contrario, il guidatore non reagisce, il sistema resta attivo per supportare eventuali manovre improvvise finalizzate a evitare un impatto o le frenate.
Una telecamera HDR nel lunotto trasmette quanto accade dietro il veicolo al display dello specchietto. Tramite il consueto interruttore a bilico antiabbaglia-. Disponibile dal , la famiglia Marco Polo comprende tre modelli, distribuiti in oltre Per quanto riguarda la dotazione di sedili, si va dai cinque posti di serie ai sette. Tutto quello che serve per vivere le emozioni del leisure time.
Il fatturato ha avuto un andamento positivo, arrivando a quota 14,8 miliardi di euro. Abbiamo inoltre preso deci-. Boost Transformation si concentra invece nel cambiamento culturale. FBAC a Fu zhou. Citan, usato per i servizi di distribuzione nelle aree urbane e prodotto a partire dal , si colloca nel segmento degli small van.
I propulsori disponibili appartengono alla collaudata fami-. Nome: Trafic My19 SpaceClass. Coppia: Nm. Accelerazione km: 12,4 sec. Livello ecologico: Euro 6d. Cambio: manuale a 6 marce. This technique came to be known as electronic speckle pattern interferometry ESPI. It employed the same experimental configurations as SI. ESPI found many industrial applications as it supplements holographic interferometry.
We present three examples covering diverse areas. In one application it has been used to measure residual stress in a blank recordable compact disk. In another application, microscopic ESPI has been used to study the influence of relative humidity on paint-coated figurines and also the effect of a conservation agent applied on top of this.
The final application is to find the defects in pipes. These diverse applications. Experimental investigation for determination of thermal effects in a Nd: YAG laser crystal by use of interferometry technique. Thermal effects have an important role in high power solid state laser designing. Known of this effect and their roles on intensity and quality of output beam needs so many experiments. In this paper, we focused on influence of temperature distribution on thermal lensing in the Nd:YAG laser by use of interferometry technique.
Then we used from a plariscop set up for describing of intensity reduce and distortion of the wave shape when it use from the Polaroid into the resonator at side pump. Previous DEMs derived from synthetic aperture radar SAR and optical shape-from-shading have been tied to airborne radio echo-sounding surface profiles from which contain an elevation-dependent bias of up to several tens of metres compared with recent elevation data.
ICESat elevations from winter —08 were used as ground control points to refine the interferometric baseline. The resulting DEM is validated against the same ground control points and independent surface elevation profiles from Global Navigation Satellite Systems GNSS and airborne laser altimetry, yielding root mean square RMS errors of about 10 m in all cases. This quality is sufficient for most glaciological applications, and the new DEM will be a baseline data set for ongoing and future research at Austfonna.
Holographic interferometry - a nondestructive inspection technique for early detection of construction element damages. After a short introduction into the fundamentals of holographic interferometry , the application of this process to non-destructive material testing is explained. Practical examples of qualitative and quantitative deformation measurements carried out on building elements of different materials as well as on metallic and nonmetallic combinations show the possibilities of early recognition of manufacturing flaws and weak points due to the construction and also the determination of construction material characteristic coefficients.
Detection techniques in low-coherence interferometry and their impact on overall measurement accuracy. Ground subsidence caused by aquifer withdrawal is a geotechnical hazard that affects wide areas, causing high economic losses. This phenomenon id due to aquifer system fine soil consolidation produced by the increase of effective stress caused by piezo metric depletion.
The Vega Media of the Segura River basin SE Spain has suffered this type of phenomena since 90s being until the moment the first documented case at a regional scale in Spain. The processing has provided the subsidence spatial distribution and temporal evolution for the whole study area showing maximum subsidence values near 15 cm for the period. Author 33 refs. Persistent Scatterer Interferometry using Sentinel-1 Data. The work will firstly address the data processing and analysis procedure implemented by the authors.
The work will discuss the characteristics of the main products derived by using Sentinel-1 DInSAR and PSI: deformation maps, deformation velocity maps, deformation time series, residual topographic error, etc. The analysis will be carried out over different types of land use area, e. The deformation monitoring based on Sentinel-1 data will be compared with the monitoring based on data from pre-existing missions, e.
The comparison will concern different study areas, mainly located in Italy and Spain. Speckle Interferometry. Before the milestone work of Leedertz in coherent speckles generated from a laser illuminated object are considered noise to be eliminated or minimized. Leedertz shows that coherent speckles are actually information carriers.
Since then the speckle technique has found many applications to fields of mechanics, metrology, nondestructive evaluation and material sciences. Speckles need not be coherent. Artificially created socalled white light speckles can also be used as information carriers. In this paper we present two recent developments of speckle technique with applications to micromechanics problems using SIEM Speckle Interferometry with Electron Microscopy , to nondestructive evaluation of crevice corrosion and composite disbond and vibration of large structures using TADS Time-Average Digital Specklegraphy.
Full Text Available In this paper, we present a procedure to map subsidence at the regional scale by means of persistent scatterer interferometry PSI. Subsidence analysis is usually restricted to plain areas and where the presence of this phenomenon is already known.
The proposed procedure allows a fast identification of subsidences in large and hilly-mountainous areas. The test area is the Tuscany region, in Central Italy, where several areas are affected by natural and anthropogenic subsidence and where PSI data acquired by the Envisat satellite are available both in ascending and descending orbit. Full Text Available Subsidences are defined as slow and gradual movements of the terrain or built surface.
These may affect all types of terrains, and are caused by tension-induced changes for many reasons, such as lowering water tables groundwater extraction, underground mining minerals, coal, salt, excavation of tunnels, extraction of oil or gas, slow processes of dissolution and lixiviation of materials, consolidation of soft soils, organic soils, In many cases, subsidences occur gradually and may be recognized before they cause damage in the works.
This article presents the evolution of this technique for measuring surface land subsidence and its application to various fields with satisfactory precision results. It presents a review on the use of DInSAR for monitoring and measuring subsidence of land and earth structures in Construction and in the fields of Geotechnics, Hydrology and Volcanology.
Las subsidencias se definen como movimientos lentos y paulatinos de la superficie del terreno natural o construido y que pueden afectar a todo tipo de terrenos. Bocanegra Bahamon, T. From these observing sessions density, temperature and pressure profiles of Venus and Mars neutral atmosphere and ionosphere have been retrieved. We present an error propagation analysis where the uncertainties of the atmospheric properties measured with this technique have been derived.
Principles of Stellar Interferometry. Over the last decade, stellar interferometry has developed from a specialist tool to a mainstream observing technique , attracting scientists whose research benefits from milliarcsecond angular resolution. This carefully written book is intended to provide a solid understanding of the principles of stellar interferometry to students starting an astronomical research project in this field or to develop instruments and to astronomers using interferometry but who are not interferometrists per se.
Illustrated by excellent drawings and calculated graphs the imaging process in stellar interferometers is explained starting from first principles on light propagation and diffraction wave propagation through turbulence is described in detail using Kolmogorov statistics the impact of turbulence on the imaging process is discussed both f Full Text Available The rapidly developing urbanization since the last decade of the 20th century has led to extensive groundwater extraction, resulting in subsidence in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
Recent advances in multi-temporal spaceborne SAR interferometry , especially with a persistent scatters interferometry PSI approach, has made this a robust remote sensing technique for measuring large-scale ground subsidence with millimetric accuracy. This work has presented an advanced PSI analysis, to provide an unprecedented spatial extent and continuous temporal coverage of the subsidence in Ho Chi Minh City from to The study shows that subsidence is most severe in the Holocene silt loam areas along the Sai Gon River and in the southwest of the city.
The groundwater extraction resulting from urbanization and urban growth is mainly responsible for the subsidence. Subsidence in turn leads to more flooding and water nuisance. From to , the estimation of the average subsidence rate is After four years, in regions along Sai Gon River and in the southwest of the city, the land has sunk up to cm.
If not addressed, subsidence leads to the increase of inundation, both in frequency and spatial extent. Finally, regarding climate change, the effects of subsidence should be considered as appreciably greater than those resulting from rising sea level. It is essential to consider these two factors, because the city is inhabited by more than 7. Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an advanced methodology to perform three-dimensional 3D Finite Element FE modeling to investigate the kinematical evolution of a slow landslide phenomenon.
Our approach benefits from the effective integration of the available geological, geotechnical and satellite datasets to perform an accurate simulation of the landslide process. Subsequently, we analyze the physical behavior characterizing the observed landslide phenomenon by means of an inverse analysis based on an optimization procedure. We focus on the Ivancich landslide phenomenon, which affects a residential area outside the historical center of the town of Assisi Central Italy.
Thanks to the large amount of available information, we have selected this area as a representative case study highlighting the capability of advanced 3D FE modeling to perform effective risk analyses of slow landslide processes and accurate urban development planning. The achieved results allow us to explore the spatial and temporal evolution of the slow-moving phenomenon and via comparison with the geomorphological data, to derive a synoptic view of the kinematical activity of the urban area affected by the Ivancich landslide.
Kaon interferometry. The main goal is to test the resolution power of the method here discussed when applied to the two-dimensional kaon interferometry. This mine has presented a historical of instability and surface monitoring measurements over sectors of the mine pit walls have been done based on ground based radar.
In order to decrease the topographic phase error a high resolution DEM was generated based on a stereo GeoEye-1 pair. Despite the fact that a DinSAR contains atmospheric and topographic phase artifacts and noise, it was possible to detect deformation in some interferometric pairs, covering pit benches, road ramps and waste piles.
The timeseries analysis was performed using the 31 interferometric pairs, which were selected based on the highest mean coherence of a stack of interferograms, presenting less phase unwrapping errors. The time-series deformation was retrieved by the Least-Squares LS solution using an extension of the Singular Value Decomposition SVD , with a set of additional weighted constrain on the acceleration deformation. The atmospheric phase artifacts were filtered in the space-time domain and the DEM height errors were estimated based on the normal baseline diversity.
The DInSAR time-series investigation showed good results for monitoring surface displacement in the N5W mine located in a tropical rainforest environment, providing very useful information about the ground movement for alarm, planning and risk assessment. Antihydrogen Experiment Gravity Interferometry Spectroscopy.
A further goal of the experiment is to carry out spectroscopy of the antihydrogen atoms in flight. Crosetto, M. A lot of research and development has been devoted to the exploitation of satellite SAR images for deformation measurement and monitoring purposes since Differential Interferometric Synthetic Apertura Radar InSAR was first described in Both techniques make use of multiple SAR images acquired over the same site and advanced procedures to separate the deformation component from the other phase components, such as the residual topographic component, the atmospheric component, the thermal expansion component and the phase noise.
TomoSAR offers the advantage of detecting either single scatterers presenting stable proprieties over time Persistent Scatterers and multiple scatterers interfering within the same range-azimuth resolution cell, a significant improvement for urban areas monitoring. This paper addresses a preliminary inter-comparison of the results of both techniques , for a test site located in the metropolitan area of Barcelona Spain , where interferometric Sentinel-1 data were analysed.
Technique for the focal-length measurement of positive lenses using Fizeau interferometry. We present what we believe is a new technique for the focal-length measurement of positive lenses using Fizeau interferometery. The technique utilizes the Gaussian lens equation. The image distance is measured interferometrically in terms of the radius of curvature of the image-forming wavefront emerging from the lens. The radii of curvature of the image-forming wavefronts corresponding to two different axial object positions of known separation are measured.
The focal length of the lens is determined by solving the equations obtained using the Gaussian lens equation for the two object positions. Results obtained for a corrected doublet lens of a nominal focal length of Full Text Available This paper describes a modified open-ended coaxial technique for microwave dielectric characterization in liquid media. A calibration model is developed to relate the measured transmission coefficient to the local properties of the sample under test. As a demonstration, the permittivity of different sodium chloride solutions is experimentally determined.
Accuracies of 0. Landslides can lead to high impacts in less developed countries, particularly in some urban tropical environments where a combination of intense rainfall, active tectonics, steep topography and high population density can be found. However, the processes controlling landslides initiation and their evolution through time remains poorly understood. Results show that various landslide processes of different ages, mechanisms and state of activity can be identified across Bukavu city.
InSAR ground deformation maps reveal for instance the complexity of a large 1. The evaluation of the ground deformations captured by DInSAR through a two-step validation procedure combining Differential GPS measurements and field observations attested the reliability of the measurements as well as the capability of the technique to grasp the deformation pattern affecting this complex tropical-urban environment.
However, longer time series will be needed to infer landside response to climate, seismic and anthropogenic activities. It is, indeed, characterized by enhanced revisit frequency, coverage and reliability for operational services and applications requiring long SAR data time series.
Moreover, SENTINEL-1 is specifically oriented to interferometry applications with stringent requirements based on attitude and orbit accuracy and it is intrinsically characterized by small spatial and temporal baselines.
Such a DInSAR chain is designed to exploit distributed computing infrastructures, and more specifically Cloud Computing environments, to properly deal with the storage and the processing of huge S1 datasets. In particular, since S1 IWS data are acquired with the innovative Terrain Observation with Progressive Scans TOPS mode, we could benefit from the structure of S1 data, which are composed by bursts that can be considered as separate acquisitions.
Indeed, the processing is intrinsically parallelizable with respect to such independent input data and therefore we basically exploited this coarse granularity parallelization strategy in the majority of the steps of the SBAS processing chain. Moreover, we also implemented more sophisticated parallelization approaches, exploiting both multi-node and multi. The influence on the latter potentially biases the estimation of deformations.
These effects have been found to be variable in magnitude and sign, as well as dependent on polarization, as opposed to predictions by existing models. Such diversity can be explained when the soil is modelled as a half-space with spatially varying dielectric properties and a rough interface.
The predictions are sensitive to the choice of dielectric mixing model, in particular the absorptive properties; the differences between the mixing models are found to be partially compensatable by varying the relative importance of surface and volume scattering. However, for half of the agricultural fields the Hallikainen mixing model cannot reproduce the observed sensitivities of the phase to soil moisture.
In addition, the first-order expansion does not predict any impact on the HV coherence, which is however empirically found to display similar sensitivities to soil moisture as the co-pol channels HH and VV. These results indicate that the first-order solution, while not able to reproduce all observed phenomena, can capture some of the more salient patterns of the effect of soil moisture changes on the HH and VV DInSAR signals.
Hence it may prove useful in separating the deformations from the moisture signals, thus yielding improved displacement estimates or new ways for inferring soil moisture. Vibration insensitive interferometry. The largest limitation of phase-shifting interferometry for optical testing is the sensitivity to the environment, both vibration and air turbulence.
An interferometer using temporal phase-shifting is very sensitive to vibration because the various phase shifted frames of interferometric data are taken at different times and vibration causes the phase shifts between the data frames to be different from what is desired. Vibration effects can be reduced by taking all the phase shifted frames simultaneously and turbulence effects can be reduced by averaging many measurements. There are several techniques for simultaneously obtaining several phase-shifted interferograms and this paper will discuss two such techniques : 1 Simultaneous phase-shifting interferometry on a single detector array PhaseCam and 2 Micropolarizer phase-shifting array.
The application of these techniques for the testing of large optical components, measurement of vibrational modes, the phasing of segmented optical components, and the measurement of deformations of large diffuse structures is described. Phase Referencing in Optical Interferometry. Filho, Mercedes E.
One of the aims of next generation optical interferometric instrumentation is to be able to make use of information contained in the visibility phase to construct high dynamic range images. Radio and optical interferometry are at the two extremes of phase corruption by the atmosphere.
While in radio it is possible to obtain calibrated phases for the science objects, in the optical this is currently not possible. Instead, optical interferometry has relied on closure phase techniques to produce Humphrey Fellowship IntroductionLandslides lead to human and economic losses across the country, mainly in the winter season.
On the other hand, satellite radar data has cost-effective benefits due to open-source software and free availability of data. With the purpose of establishing an early warning system of landslide-related surface deformation, three case studies were designed in the Coast, Sierra Andean , and Oriente jungle regions. For the calculation of the interferograms in Repeat Orbit Interferometry PACkage, the displacement was detected as the error and was corrected.
Under this frame, as a first approach, the stacking DInSAR technique  was applied in the case studies ; however, due to lush vegetation and steep topography, it is necessary to apply advanced InSAR techniques . The purpose of the research is to determine a pattern of data acquisition and successful results to understand the spatial and temporal ground movements associated with landslides.
The further work consists of establishing landslide inventories to combine phases of SAR images to generate maps of surface deformation in Tumba-San Francisco and Guarumales to compare the results with ground-based measurements to determine the maps' accuracy. References Sandwell D. Phase gradient approach to stacking interferograms. Journal of Geophysical Research, Vol. B12, pp. Investigating landslides and unstable slopes with.
Characterization of the multi-component driving land subsidence using Persistent Scatterer Interferometry technique : the Ravenna case of study Italy. Land subsidence represents a kind of hazard, which affects an increasing number of worldwide regions, densely populated, causing damage to the environment and infrastructures. Settlements can be related to multiple processes both natural and anthropic i. Over the last decades, advanced subsidence studies exploited Synthetic-Aperture Radar SAR data, a recent remote sensing tool, to investigate land subsidence phenomena around the world.
In particular, Persistent Scatterer Interferometry PSI technique , allowing a quantitative estimation at high resolution of the surface deformations, has already been successfully applied to monitor the phenomenon evolution; PSI measurements represent the cumulative displacement, deriving from the contribution of natural and anthropic components, both superficial and deep. The overlapping of several causative factors makes more difficult to accurately interpret the resulting deformations; therefore, it is essential to implement a suitable methodology to distinguish the shallow and deep components of motion.
The aim of our research is to introduce a PSI-based approach not only to monitoring but also to understand the land subsidence mechanism, in order to disentangle the natural and anthropic components of motion. The methodology consists of three main phases: 1 Post-processing elaborations i.
In this work, the methodology has been applied to the Ravenna area, Italy, using. Monitoring of deformation phenomena affecting urban areas and man-made structures is of key relevance for the preservation of the artistic, archaeological and architectural heritage. The differential SAR interferometry DInSAR technique has already been demonstrated to be an effective tool for non-invasive deformation analyses over large areas by producing spatially dense deformation maps with centimetre to millimetre accuracy.
Moreover, by exploiting long sequences of SAR data acquired by different sensors, the advanced DInSAR technique referred to as the small baseline subset SBAS approach allows providing long-term deformation time series, which are strategic for guaranteeing the monitoring of urban area displacements.
In this work, we investigate the effectiveness of the two-scale multi-sensor SBAS-DInSAR approach to detect and monitor displacements affecting historical and artistic monuments. Accordingly, our analysis demonstrates the effectiveness of the full resolution multi-sensor SBAS approach to operate as a surface deformation tool for supporting the study and conservation strategies of the historical, cultural and artistic heritage.
Atmospheric phase delay, as one of the most important errors that limit the monitoring accuracy of InSAR, would lead to the masking of true phase in subsidence monitoring. The results before and after the atmospheric phase delay correction were verified and analyzed in the main subsidence area.
The experimental results show that atmospheric phase influences the deformation results to a certain extent. After the correction, the measurement error of vertical deformation is reduced by about 18 mm, which proves that the removal of atmospheric effects can improve the accuracy of the D-InSAR monitoring. Basics of interferometry. This book is for those who have some knowledge of optics, but little or no previous experience in interferometry.
Accordingly, the carefully designed presentation helps readers easily find and assimilate the interferometric techniques they need for precision measurements. Mathematics is held to a minimum, and the topics covered are also summarized in capsule overviews at the beginning and end of each chapter.
Each chapter also contains a set of worked problems that give a feel for numbers. The first five chapters present a clear tutorial review of fundamentals. Chapters six and seven discus. Phase estimation in optical interferometry. Phase Estimation in Optical Interferometry covers the essentials of phase-stepping algorithms used in interferometry and pseudointerferometric techniques. It presents the basic concepts and mathematics needed for understanding the phase estimation methods in use today.
The first four chapters focus on phase retrieval from image transforms using a single frame. The next several chapters examine the local environment of a fringe pattern, give a broad picture of the phase estimation approach based on local polynomial phase modeling, cover temporal high-resolution phase evaluation methods, and pre.
Fundamental physics research and neutron interferometry. The possibility of the use of an extremely sensitive neutron interferometry technique for the study of electromagnetic structure of the neutron and the parity non-conservative effects in neutron spin rotation is discussed. This process has been used to model various antenna array configurations for two proposed New Zealand sites for antenna in a VLBI array configuration with existing Australian facilities and a passable antenna at Scott Base in Antarctica; and the results are presented in an attempt to demonstrate the improvement to be gained by joint trans-Tasman VLBI observation.
It is hoped these results and process will assist the planning and placement of proposed New Zealand radio telescopes for cooperation with groups such as the Australian Long Baseline Array LBA , others in the Pacific Rim and possibly globally; also potential future involvement of New Zealand with the SKA. The developed process has also been used to model a phased building schedule for the SKA in Australia and the addition of two antennas in New Zealand.
This has been presented to the wider astronomical community via the Royal Astronomical Society of New Zealand Journal, and is summarized in this thesis with some additional material. A new measure of quality "figure of merit" for comparing the original model image and final CLEAN images by utilizing normalized 2-D cross correlation is evaluated as an alternative to the existing subjective visual operator image comparison undertaken to date by other groups.
This new unit of measure is then used! A time series land deformation studies in north western Himalayan region has been presented in this study. Synthetic aperture radar SAR interferometry InSAR is an important tool for measuring the land displacement caused by different geological processes . Frequent spatial and temporal decorrelation in the Himalayan region is a strong impediment in precise deformation estimation using conventional interferometric SAR approach. Finally it leads to the generation of mean deformation velocity maps and displacement time series.
Himalayan region is a very active tectonic belt and active orogeny play a significant role in land deformation process . Geomorphology in the region is unique and reacts to the climate change adversely bringing with land slides and subsidence. Settlements on the hill slopes are prone to land slides, landslips, rockslides and soil creep. These hazardous features have hampered the over all progress of the region as they obstruct the roads and flow of traffic, break communication, block flowing water in stream and create temporary reservoirs and also bring down lot of soil cover and thus add enormous silt and gravel to the streams.
It has been observed that average deformation varies from References  Massonnet, D. Because of its proximity to the city of Naples and with a population of nearly 1 million people within its caldera, Campi Flegrei is one of the highest risk volcanic areas in the world. Since the last major eruption in , the caldera has undergone frequent episodes of ground subsidence and uplift accompanied by seismic activity that has been interpreted as the result of a stationary, deeper source below the caldera that feeds shallower eruptions.
However, the location and depth of the deeper source is not well-characterized and its relationship to current activity is poorly understood. Recently, a significant increase in the uplift rate has occurred, resulting in almost 13 cm of uplift by De Martino et al. Here we apply a principal component decomposition to high resolution time series from the region produced by the advanced Multidimensional SBAS DInSAR technique in order to better delineate both the deeper source and the recent shallow activity.
We analyzed both a period of substantial subsidence and a second of significant uplift and inverted the associated vertical surface displacement for the most likely source models. Results suggest that the underlying dynamics of the caldera changed in the late s, from one in which the primary signal arises from a shallow deflating source above a deeper, expanding source to one dominated by a shallow inflating source.
In general, the shallow source lies between and m below the caldera while the deeper source lies at m or more in depth. The combination of principal component analysis with high resolution MSBAS time series data allows for these new insights and confirms the applicability of both to areas at risk from dynamic natural hazards. A novel femtosecond-gated, high-resolution, frequency-shifted shearing interferometry technique for probing pre-plasma expansion in ultra-intense laser experiments.
Feister, S. Time resolved interferometry offers a robust way to characterize the expanding plasma during this period. We have developed a novel pump-probe interferometry system for an ultra-intense laser experiment that uses two short-pulse amplifiers synchronized by one ultra-fast seed oscillator to achieve fs time resolution over hundreds of nanoseconds, using a variable delay line and other techniques.
The first of these amplifiers acts as the pump and delivers maximal energy to the interaction region. The second amplifier is frequency shifted and then frequency doubled to generate the femtosecond probe pulse. After passing through the laser-target interaction region, the probe pulse is split and recombined in a laterally sheared Michelson interferometer. Importantly, the frequency shift in the probe allows strong plasma self-emission at the second harmonic of the pump to be filtered out, allowing plasma expansion near the critical surface and elsewhere to be clearly visible in the interferograms.
Three-phase reconstructions of the electron densities are then inferred by Abel inversion. This interferometric system delivers precise measurements of pre-plasma expansion that can identify the condition of the target at the moment that the ultra-intense pulse arrives.
Such measurements are indispensable for correlating laser pre-pulse measurements. Time-Delay Interferometry. Full Text Available Equal-arm detectors of gravitational radiation allow phase measurements many orders of magnitude below the intrinsic phase stability of the laser injecting light into their arms. This is because the noise in the laser light is common to both arms, experiencing exactly the same delay, and thus cancels when it is differenced at the photo detector.
In this situation, much lower level secondary noises then set the overall performance. If, however, the two arms have different lengths as will necessarily be the case with space-borne interferometers, the laser noise experiences different delays in the two arms and will hence not directly cancel at the detector. In order to solve this problem, a technique involving heterodyne interferometry with unequal arm lengths and independent phase-difference readouts has been proposed.
It relies on properly time-shifting and linearly combining independent Doppler measurements, and for this reason it has been called time-delay interferometry TDI. This article provides an overview of the theory, mathematical foundations, and experimental aspects associated with the implementation of TDI. Although emphasis on the application of TDI to the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna LISA mission appears throughout this article, TDI can be incorporated into the design of any future space-based mission aiming to search for gravitational waves via interferometric measurements.
We have purposely left out all theoretical aspects that data analysts will need to account for when analyzing the TDI data combinations. Covariance estimation for dInSAR surface deformation measurements in the presence of anisotropic atmospheric noise. Here, we analyze anisotropic structures and show validation results using both real and simulated data. Optical design and analysis of carbon dioxide laser fusion systems using interferometry and fast Fourier transform techniques.
The optical design and analysis of the LASL carbon dioxide laser fusion systems required the use of techniques that are quite different from the currently used method in conventional optical design problems.
The necessity for this is explored and the method that has been successfully used at Los Alamos to understand these systems is discussed with examples. This method involves characterization of the various optical components in their mounts by a Zernike polynomial set and using fast Fourier transform techniques to propagate the beam, taking diffraction and other nonlinear effects that occur in these types of systems into account.
The various programs used for analysis are briefly discussed. Satellite SAR interferometric techniques applied to emergency mapping. This paper aim to investigate the capabilities of the currently available SAR interferometric algorithms in the field of emergency mapping. Depending on the considered Emergency Management phase, it may be distinguished between rapid mapping, i. In order to evaluate the potential and limitations of the aforementioned SAR interferometric approaches for the specific rapid and monitoring mapping application, five main factors have been taken into account: crisis information extracted, input data required, processing time and expected accuracy.
The results highlight that DInSAR has the capacity to delineate areas affected by large and sudden deformations and fulfills most of the immediate response requirements. The main limiting factor of interferometry is the availability of suitable SAR acquisition immediately after the event e. Sentinel-1 mission characterized by 6-day revisiting time may not always satisfy the immediate emergency request. For this reason, there is an urgent need to evaluate the seismic hazard that the fault poses to the new development.
Although several geophysical studies have supported the existence of a fault, the driving mechanism remains unclear. While a fault controlled by gravity gliding of the overburden on a mobile salt layer is unlikely to be of concern to the city, one caused by the continued extension of a normal rotational fault due to Red Sea rifting could result in a major earthquake.
A number of geomorphology and geodetic techniques were used to better understand the fault. An analysis of topographic data revealed a sharp discontinuity in slope aspect and hanging wall tilting which strongly supports the existence of a normal fault. A GPS survey of an emergent reef platform which revealed a tilted coral surface also indicates that deformation has occurred in the region.
An interferometric synthetic aperture radar investigation has also been performed to establish whether active deformation is occurring on the fault. Ground movements that could be consistent with inter-seismic strain accumulation have been observed, although the analysis is restricted by the limited data available. However, a simple fault model suggests that the deformation is unlikely due to continued crustal stretching.
This, in addition to the lack of footwall uplift in the topography data, suggests that the fault is more likely controlled by a shallow salt layer. However, more work will need to be done in the future to confirm these findings. Lacour, S. The object was observed at four different epochs in with the Infrared-Optical Telescope Array optical interferometer H band.
Model fitting gave precise time-dependent values of the stellar diameter, and reveals presence and displacement of a warm molecular layer. The star radius, corrected for limb darkening, has a mean value of Minimum diameter was observed at phase 0. Maximum temperature was observed several days later at phase 1. The acceleration is compatible with a gravitational field produced by a 2. This last value is in agreement with fundamental mode pulsator models.
We foresee increased development of techniques consisting in combining radial velocity with interferometric angular measurements, ultimately allowing total mapping of the speed, density, and position of the diverse species in pulsation-driven atmospheres. Coastal city subsidence in Shenzhen China , monitored using multi-frequency radar interferometry time-series techniques. In just 26 years, the coastal city of Shenzhen Southern China has been transformed from a small fishing village to a modern city with a population exceeding 8.
Following its designation as a Special Economic Zone in the s, the city became a test bed for China's economic reforms and currently leads many new practices in urban planning. The rapid economic development was matched by a sharp increase in the demand for usable land and consequently, extensive coastal reclamation has been undertaken by piling rock fragments from nearby hills onto the seabed.
However, it has recently been reported that new apartments, offices and transport networks built on the reclaimed land have become unusable due to ground subsidence. The additional threat of coastal inundation from sea-level rise also requires serious consideration. InSAR time-series techniques such as Persistent Scatterer and Small Baseline InSAR are capable of detecting sub-centimetre elevation changes of the Earth's surface over large areas and at a density far exceeding the capabilities of a GPS network - particularly for such an urban environment as Shenzhen.
Quantitative comparative analyses are carried out in the overlapping area between two adjacent tracks, and thus no ground data is required to validate InSAR results. The results show greatest subsidence in coastal areas with the areas of reclaimed land also predominantly undergoing subsidence. The combination of different ascending and descending tracks allows 2D velocity fields to be estimated and it will be important to determine whether the subsidence from the recently reclaimed land is consolidation or part of a longer-term trend.
This ability to provide accurate measurements of ground stability for the city of Shenzhen will help focus investigations into areas of. Knowing the location and behavior of active faults is essential for earthquake hazard assessment and disaster response.
Currently, interferograms are manually inspected to locate faults. A computer-vision technique known as 'edge-detection' was used to automate the fault-identification process. The edge-detection algorithm detected seismic, aseismic, and co-seismic slip along faults that were identified and compared with databases of known fault systems.
Our optimization process was the first step toward integration of the edge-detection code into E-DECIDER to provide decision support for earthquake preparation and disaster management. Through these partnerships, researchers, earthquake disaster response teams, and policy-makers will be able to use this new methodology to examine the details of ground and fault motions for moderate to large earthquakes.
Following an earthquake, the newly discovered faults can. Holographic interferometry in construction analysis. In this work techniques for visualizing phase and opaque objects by ruby laser interferometry are introduced.
A leakage flow as a phase object is studied by holographic interferometry and the intensity distribution of the interferograms presenting the leakage flow are computer-simulated. A qualitative and quantitative analysis of the leakage flow is made. The analysis is based on the experimental and theoretical results presented in this work. The holographic setup and the double pass method for visualizing leakage flow are explained. A vibrating iron plate is the opaque object.
Transient impact waves are generated by a pistol bullet on the iron plate and visualized by holographic interferometry. An apparatus with the capability of detecting and calculating the delays necessary for laser triggering is introduced. A time series of interferograms presenting elastic wave formation in an iron plate is shown.
A computer-simulation of the intensity distributions of these interferograms is made. An analysis based on the computer-simulation and the experimental data of the transient elastic wave is carried out and the results are presented. Holographic interferometry of high pressure. Measurements in turbulent flows have been historically performed using various types of probes and optical diagnostic methods. In general, probes suffer from plasma perturbation effects and are single point determination methods.
Optical methods appear to be better suited to determinations in turbulent flows, however interpretation of the resulting data can often be complex. Methods such as laser Doppler anemometry, which relies on entrained particles, suffers from the fact that particles small enough to be swept along by the plasma are usually melted or sublimed in the plasma.
Light refraction or diffraction methods such as shadow photography, interferometry , and holography have also been used to observe plasma flows. These methods typically suffer from the difficulty of interpreting line of sight images and obtaining quantitative data. A new method based on multi-pass holographic interferometry will be discussed. This method has certain advantages which can significantly simplify the complexity of line of sight interferometry image deconvolution. When the method employs high speed cinematography, time resolved images of the plasma flow can be obtained.
This method has been applied to both transferred and non-transferred arcs and various types of DC-plasma torch produced jets. These studies and conclusions as to the usefulness of the technique are presented. Optical interferometry in astronomy. Here I review the current state of the field of optical stellar interferometry , concentrating on ground-based work although a brief report of space interferometry missions is included. We pause both to reflect on decades of immense progress in the field as well as to prepare for a new generation of large interferometers just now being commissioned most notably, the CHARA, Keck and VLT Interferometers.
First, this review summarizes the basic principles behind stellar interferometry needed by the lay-physicist and general astronomer to understand the scientific potential as well as technical challenges of interferometry. Next, the basic design principles of practical interferometers are discussed, using the experience of past and existing facilities to illustrate important points. Here there is significant discussion of current trends in the field, including the new facilities under construction and advanced technologies being debuted.
This decade has seen the influence of stellar interferometry extend beyond classical regimes of stellar diameters and binary orbits to new areas such as mapping the accretion discs around young stars, novel calibration of the cepheid period-luminosity relation, and imaging of stellar surfaces.
The third section is devoted to the major scientific results from interferometry , grouped into natural categories reflecting these current developments. Lastly, I consider the future of interferometry , highlighting the kinds of new science promised by the interferometers coming on-line in the next few years.
I also discuss the longer-term future of optical interferometry , including the prospects for space interferometry and the possibilities of large-scale ground-based projects. Critical technological developments are still needed to make these projects attractive and affordable. Ostrava, Integrated analysis of differential interferometric synthetic aperture radar DInSAR and geological data for measuring deformation movement of Kaligarang fault, Semarang-Indonesia. Semarang is one of the densely populated city in Central Java which is has Kaligarang's fault.
It is lie in Kaligarang River and across several dense urban settlement. The position of Kaligarang's river itself divides in the direction nearly north-south city of Semarang. The impact of the fault can be seen in severals indication such as a land subsidence phenomenon in Tinjomoyo village area which is make impact to house and road destruction. In this research, we have used combination methods between InSAR, DinSAR and geomorphology geology data where is this techniques used to identity the fault area and estimate Kaligarang's fault movement velocity.
In fault movement velocity observation, we only compute the movement in vertical with neglect horizontal movement. The use of the three methods already mentioned earlier have different functions. For the lnSAR method used for the establishment of a digital model in Semarang.
After getting high models digital city of Semarang, the identification process can be done layout, length, width and area of the Kaligarang fault using geomorphology. Results of such identification can be calculated using the rate of deformation and fault movement. After validating obtained standard deviation of 3, em. To estimate the Kaligarang's fault pattern and direction is using the geomorphology method. The results that Kaligarang's is an active fault that has fault strike slip as fault pattern.
It makes this research is useful because could be used as an inquick assessment in fault. We study anisotropic spatial autocorrelation in differential synthetic aperture radar interferometric dInSAR measurements and its impact on geophysical parameter estimations. The dInSAR phase acquired by the satellite sensor is a superposition of different contributions, and when studying geophysical processes, we are usually only interested in the surface deformation part of the signal.
A stochastic model has been found to be appropriate to describe atmospheric phase delay in dInSAR images. However, these phase delays are usually modeled as being isotropic, which is a simplification, because InSAR images often show directional atmospheric anomalies. The presented covariance function types, in the statistical framework of stationary RFs, are consistent with tropospheric delay models. We find that by using anisotropic data covariance information to weight dInSAR measurements, we can significantly improve both the precision and accuracy of geophysical parameter estimations.
Furthermore, the improvement is dependent on how similar the deformation pattern is to the dominant structure of the anisotropic atmospheric signals. Extreme ultraviolet interferometry. EUV lithography is a promising and viable candidate for circuit fabrication with 0. In order to achieve diffraction-limited performance, all-reflective multilayer-coated lithographic imaging systems operating near nm wavelength and 0. Owing to the highly-sensitive resonant reflective properties of multilayer mirrors and extraordinarily tight tolerances set forth for their fabrication, EUV optical systems require at-wavelength EUV interferometry for final alignment and qualification.
This dissertation discusses the development and successful implementation of high-accuracy EUV interferometric techniques. Proof-of-principle experiments with a prototype EUV point-diffraction interferometer for the measurement of Fresnel zoneplate lenses first demonstrated sub-wavelength EUV interferometric capability.
Both systems rely on pinhole diffraction to produce spherical reference wavefronts in a common-path geometry. Extensive experiments demonstrate EUV wavefront-measuring precision beyond 0. EUV imaging experiments provide verification of the high-accuracy of the point-diffraction principle, and demonstrate the utility of the measurements in successfully predicting imaging performance.
First-principles electromagnetic field simulations of pinhole diffraction are conducted to ascertain the upper limits of measurement accuracy and to guide selection of the pinhole diameter. Global astrometry with the space interferometry mission. The prospects for global astrometric measurements with the space interferometry mission SIM are discussed.
The SIM mission will perform four microarcsec astrometric measurements on objects as faint as 20 mag using the optical interferometry technique with a 10 m baseline. The SIM satellite will perform narrow angle astrometry and global astrometry by means of an astrometric grid. The sensitivities of the SIM global astrometric performance and the grid accuracy versus instrumental parameters and sky coverage schemes are reported on.
The problems in finding suitable astrometric grid objects to support microarcsec astrometry, and related ground-based observation programs are discussed. Monitoring civil infrastructure using satellite radar interferometry. Satellite radar interferometry InSAR is a precise and efficient technique to monitor deformation on Earth with millimeter precision. Most InSAR applications focus on geophysical phenomena, such as earthquakes, volcanoes, or subsidence.
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